The Grey Chronicles


Relative Hardship in Iligan? Part VIII

This is the eighth part of my previous post on a quest of a suitable figure for Iligan City’s Relative Hardship for 2005. This installment considers education conditions. Previous posts discussed a comparison of economic, political, public service, climatic, religious, safety, health and education conditions in India and the Philippines.

Transportation conditions include public transport availability, safety and efficiency.

Enrique Penalosa, former mayor of Bogota, Colombia writes (2005):

“Transport differs from other problems developing socities face, because it gets worse rather than better with economic development. While sanitation, education, and other challenges improve with economic growth, transport gets worse. . .[thus a] vision for the transport system of a city has to be developed. The vision has to include goals.”

India, Philippine Transportation Fact File

India, Philippine Transportation Fact File

The CIA (2008) reports that India’s transportation infrastructure consists of 3,316,452 km (includes 200 km of expressways) roadways from 2,525,989 km in 1999 [57% paved] ; 63,221 km railways, 346 airports [72% paved] from 333 in 2004 [70% paved], and 14,500 km waterways. Meanwhile, the Philippines’ infrastructure comprises of 200,841 km highways [22% paved] in 2005, 897 km railways [only 55% is operational in 2006], 3,219 km waterways in 2004 and 255 airports [33% paved] for 2005. Javier (2008) reports, however, that for the Philippines in 2005, there were 200,841 km. roads, 203 registered airports (8 of which are international), and 523 km. railways plus 101 km. urban railways [MRT/LRT].

Using the best available published data for 2005, India constructed more roads and railways on its usable land; but the Philippines had more airports, heliports and sea ports per million people, and more kilometers of waterways. Aptly so, India has more land mass while Philippines is an archipelago.

Puchera, (2005) writes:

“Indian cities face a transport crisis characterized by levels of congestion, noise, pollution, traffic fatalities and injuries, and inequity . . . exacerbated by the extremely rapid growth of India’s largest cities in a context of low incomes, limited and outdated transport infrastructure, rampant suburban sprawl, sharply rising motor vehicle ownership and use, deteriorating bus services, a wide range of motorized and non-motorized transport modes sharing roadways, and inadequate as well as uncoordinated land use and transport planning. . . India’s poor have such low incomes that they cannot even afford public transport fares and thus must walk or cycle long distances. . . . The unavailability of good, affordable housing near the center forces . . . the middle class to live in distant suburbs. . . requiring long, exhausting commutes to jobs using either slow, overcrowded public transport or dangerous motorcycles. . . affluent Indians who own private cars must endure long commutes on hopelessly congested and unsafe roadways.”

Iligan City 2005 PPCRP Scores

Iligan City 2005 PPCRP Scores

In (2005), AIM Policy Center ranked Iligan City fifth among the mid-sized cities in its Philippine Cities Competitiveness Project. “The primary objective of the PCCRP is to assess the competitiveness of cities as well as the attractiveness of the cities’ ability to uplift business and human lives,” the report said. The 2005 ranked 65 Philippine cities out of 136. While Iligan got relatively low scores in the other quantitative indicators, data revealed that it has the most number of ISPs among the mid-sized cities. Iligan also landed third on the list of indicators on traffic management and road maintenance and fourth on reliability of electric power.

According to the World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention (2004), in 1999 the motorization rates (number of vehicles per 1000 persons) in India: 34, and the Philippines 42. Moreover, Javier (2008) wrote that the Philippines had 5,059,753 registered motor vehicles, and 11,236 traffic accidents, or Accidents per 10,000 vehicles equivalent to: 22.2 for 2005 alone. Data from World Bank in 2004 reports that India’s Annual Fatalities in Road Accidents per 10,000 vehicles is 12.7.

In 2002, WHO (2004) reported that estimated deaths per 100,000 population by Road Traffic Accidents in India was 18.0; while in the Philippines it was 10.0.

At least, no 200 million cows [see Indian Livestock Census (2005)] roaming around the Philippine streets blocking most of the traffic.


AIM Policy Center (2004). 2005 Philippine Cities Competitive Ranking Project. Manila: Asian Institute of Management (AIM), 2005. pp. 27, 70#151;72, 134. back to text

CIA (2008). CIA World Factbook 2008. Online: Central Intelligence Agency, updated 10 February 2009. back to text

India Ministry of Agriculture (2005). 17th Indian Livestock Census, All India Summary Report. New Delhi: Ministry of Agriculture, January 2005. a-c. back to text

Javier, Shiela Flor D. (2008). Philippine Transportation Statistics Manila: NCTS, 2008. pp. 8-9, 11-12, 15, 23-24, 29. back to text: note 1, note 2

Puchera, John; Nisha Korattyswaropama, Neha Mittala, and Neenu Ittyerah (2005). Urban transport crisis in India. Transport Policy 12. Online: Elsevier, 2005. pp. 185—198. back to text

Penalosa, Enrique (2005). The Role of Transport in Urban Development Policy, Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities. Module 1a, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH for the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2005. pp. 1, 12. back to text

WHO BOD (2004). 2002 Burden of Disease. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO), December 2004. back to text

WHO WRR (2004). World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004. p. 198. back to text

Disclaimer : The posts on this site does not necessarily represent any organization’s positions, strategies or opinions; and unless otherwise expressly stated, are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Philippines License.

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