The Grey Chronicles


Relative Hardship in Iligan? Part V

This is the fifth part of my previous post on a quest of a suitable figure for Iligan City’s Relative Hardship. After writing about non-personable conditions in India and the Philippines, this post will tackle safety conditions. Previous posts discussed a comparison of economic, political, public service and climatic and religious conditions in India and the Philippines.

The Human Development Index [HDI] is a composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living (UNDP, HDR2007).

Human Development Index

Human Development Index

Mahbub ul Haq, founder of the Human Development Report, said:

“The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people’s choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. People often value achievements that do not show up at all, or not immediately, in income or growth figures: greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, more secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violence, satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms and sense of participation in community activities. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives.

Comparative HDI 1975-2005

Comparative HDI 1975-2005

In 2005, Iceland tied with Norway for the top post in the Human Development Index [HDI] at 0.968 (1.00 for most developed). India’s HDI at 0.619 placed 128th; while the Philippines placed 90th at 0.771 (UNDP, 2007). The latter two are categorized as Medium Human Development countries.

Yet, it is obvious that India, with its break-neck economic growth, is fast catching up to the Philippines, and eventually will surpass the latter, most probably within the next 10 years or less! Using simple regression point to somwhere after 2010, with the assumption that India’s growth rate at 8-9% is maintained throughout.

Safety conditions include personal security and the threat of public violence.

Wikipedia states:

“Crime statistics attempt to provide statistical measures of the crime in societies. Given that crime is illegal, measurements of it are likely to be inaccurate. Crime rate is a useful statistic for many purposes, such as evaluating the effectiveness of crime prevention measures or the relative safety of a particular city or neighborhood. . . . Because of the difficulties in quantifying how much crime actually occurs, researchers generally take two approaches to gathering statistics about crime: Statistics from law enforcement organizations and victimization surveys.”

The Seventh United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems, covering the period 1998 – 2000 (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Centre for International Crime Prevention), as cited by NationMaster, reported that India ranked #26 with 0.0344083 per 1,000 people murdered per capita. By the Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2002), India topped the list with 37,170 murders compared with the Philippines’ 6,553 at eighth place, thus the Philippines with much less population than the other countries do not appear on the list of murder per capita.

For the first quarter of 2005, the Philippine National Police, Region 10 (2006) reported that crime volume in Iligan City was 155 (about 16% of the region), and crime solution efficiency was at 93.55% which is higher than the region’s 90.99%.

As to threats, the normalization process between India and Pakistan resumed in (2005), but talks made little immediate progress on differences over Kashmir due to respective positions of each remain unchanged. On 29 October that year, BBC reported that violence escalated in northeast and terrorist attacks rocked Delhi; while Hindustan Times chronicled the territorial dispute escalating into full-scale ethnic violence in Assam.

Similarly, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front [MILF] agreed to resume peace talks with the Philippine government in February 2005, [for background, see Crisis Group Asia Report N°80, Southern Philippines Backgrounder: Terrorism and the Peace Process]; while a series of bombing littered throughout the year. By December, the International Crisis Group (2005) warned that a collapse of these talks, a triumvirate of Jemaah Islamiyah [JI], Abu Sayyaf Group [ASG] and Rajah Solaiman Movement [RSM] might form the nucleus of a longer-term extremist insurgency. A ceasefire mechanism, Ad Hoc Joint Action Group (AHJAG), although agreed on in 2002 and made operational in early 2005, was designed to protect the peace process (Crisis Group Asia, 2008).

Based on WHO (2002) data, death rates (per 100,000 people) due to injuries for India was 100; while the Philippines was 48.6. India posted 18.0 due to road traffic accidents, 17.4 self-inflicted, 14.0 fires, and 21.6 categorized as other unintentional injuries; Philippines posted 21.1 due to violence, 10.0 due to road traffic accidents and 4.6 due to drownings.


International Crisis Group (2005). Annual Report 2005. Brussels: International Crisis Group, 2005. p. 13. back to text

NorMinet (2006). Regional Economic Situationer. Region X (Northern Mindanao), First Quarter of 2006, p. 33. back to text

UNDP HDR (2007). Human Development Report 2007/2008. New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2007. pp. 230—231, 355-6. back to text

WHO, Department of Measurement and Health Information (2004). 2002 Burden of Disease. Online: World Health Organization (WHO), December 2004. back to text

Disclaimer : The posts on this site does not necessarily represent any organization’s positions, strategies or opinions; and unless otherwise expressly stated, are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Philippines License.



  1. Great looking website and very useful information.

    Comment by Joanne Lee — 2009.March.29 @ 15:36 | Reply

  2. Great post, nice looking site with awesome information thanks.

    Comment by Brendon Griffiths — 2009.March.29 @ 15:32 | Reply

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